Nineteen short essays introduce the reader to the multifaceted martial culture of the pre-modern European town. The stories in this richly illustrated anthology describe the ownership, handling, symbolism, use, and materiality of medieval weapons in their social, political, and cultural context. Originally contributions to the research blog “Martial Culture in Medieval Towns”, the selected and re-worked essays were edited to accompany the exhibition “Alarm! Culture, ownership, and use of weapons in the late medieval town” (Museum Altes Zeughaus / Old Arsenal Museum. Solothurn, 2022).